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Article References for April 2017 San Francisco Medicine

References cited in The View from Inside the Box by Joshua Smith, EMT-P

1. Barkley, Katherine T. “The Ambulance.” Exposition Press, 1990. ISBN 0-682-48983-2

2. Ortiz, Captain Jose M. "The Revolutionary Flying Ambulance of Napoleon's Surgeon." U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, October–December 1998.


4. Ibid

5. Shah, Manish MD. “The Formation of the Emergency Medical System”. 2006.



References cited in Pain Without Gain by Hallam Gugelmann, MD, MPH

1. Crane, E. H. “The CBHSQ Report: Emergency Department Visits Involving Narcotic Pain Relievers.”

2. Matrix Global Advisors, LLC. “Health Care Costs from Opioid Abuse: A State-by-State Analysis.” April 2015.

3. Porter J, Jick H. “Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics.” N Engl J Med. 1980;302(2):123.

4. Portenoy RK, Foley KM. “Chronic use of opioid analgesics in non-malignant pain: report of 38 cases.” Pain. 1986 May;25(2):171-86.

5. Max MB. “Improving outcomes of analgesic treatment: is education enough?” Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(11):885-889.

6. Baker DW. “History of The Joint Commission's Pain Standards: Lessons for Today's Prescription Opioid Epidemic.” JAMA. 2017 Feb 23.

7. Van Zee A. “The promotion and marketing of oxycontin: commercial triumph, public health tragedy.” Am J Public Health. 2009 Feb;99(2):221-7. 

8. Barnett ML, Olenski AR, Jena AB. “Opioid-Prescribing Patterns of Emergency Physicians and Risk of Long-Term Use.” N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb 16;376(7):663-673.

9. Washington State Agency Medical Directors’ Group (AMDG). “Interagency Guideline on Prescribing Opioids for Pain, 2015.” Accessed 3/1/2017 at

10. Manchikanti L, Singh A. “Therapeutic opioids: a ten-year perspective on the complexities and complications of escalating use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids.” Pain Physician. 2008;11(2 Suppl):S63-S88.

11. Manchikanti L, Helm S 2nd, Fellows B, Janata JW, Pampati V, Grider JS, Boswell MV. “Opioid epidemic in the United States.” Pain Physician. 2012 Jul;15(3 Suppl):ES9-38.

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